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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2005年12月第11卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2005)06-0709-07
 
霍布斯激情论探析
 
舒远招,雷艳平
 
(湖南师范大学公共管理学院,湖南长沙, 410081)
 
摘  要: 人性论是霍布斯政治哲学的基础。激情论是霍布斯人性论的基础。激情是霍布斯所理解的人性结构的核心和实质内容。激情是人的自觉行动的内在开端。它从本质上是在感觉基础上产生的对于外界事物的反应。它包含欲望、嫌恶。基于这种对激情的理解,霍布斯对激情进行了生动的描绘和细致的分析。在说明激情产生的根源时,他采纳了机械论心理学和生机活力论两种模式。其中包含他对现实人生和社会生活的卓越体验和洞察。他认为没有激情就没有幸福。因此他没有对激情采取宗教禁欲主义的态度。他没有把激情简单地归结为恶并加以攻击,因此不能认为他是性恶论者。但他确实看到激情的滥用会导致恶行,因此主张对它进行规范。
 
关键词: 霍布斯;激情;理性;自然状态;契约;人性
 
 
The enquiry of Hobbes Theory of Passions
 
SHU Yuan-zhao, LEI Yan-ping
 
(Institute of Public Administration, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China)
 
Abstract: Human Nature is the base of Hobbes political philosophy. The theory of passions is the foundation of Hobbbes theory of Human Nature. And the passion is the core and substantial content of the Human Nature structure in his understandings. Passions are the interior beginnings of voluntary motions of man. From the view of its essence, the passions are the reflections of outer objects on the basis of sense, including appetites and aversions. From the understandings of passions, Hobbes gives a vivid and deliberate description of the passions. In analyzing the source of the passions, Hobbes adopts two patterns of mechanic psychology and vital vigorism, including his excellent experience and perception on the realistic fate and social life. He thinks that where there is no passions there is no felicity. So the attitude of religious asceticism is exclusive in the passions. He does not attribute the passions to the evil and launches an attack on it, so we can't view him a moron. He realized that the abuse of passions would induce evil behaviors,however, and we must regulate it.
 
Key words: Hobbes; passions ; rationality(reason); natural condition; social contract; Human Nature
 
 
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