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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2021年07月第27卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2021)04-0203-12
 
潇湘的衰变与晚清湖南形象的转型
 
张弛
 
(湖南师范大学文学院,湖南长沙,410081)
 
摘  要: 晚清时期的湖南形象,在各类历史与文学文本中,经历了一个从危机到转型的过程。古代寓湘者笔下被高度审美化的潇湘形象,逐渐走向衰落和变异,在异域文明的冲击之下,湖南成为传教士等外来者眼中最为保守的中国区域。作为回应,郭嵩焘、曾国藩等湘军创建者,开始从缥缈隐逸的潇湘风景中走出,寻找个人与国家的出路,他们与更多本土绅民一起,呈现出湖南人物闭塞保守却又进取开新的立体形象。戊戌时期湖南的维新运动虽然失败,但以梁启超为代表的士人,却从荒蛮偏僻的潇湘地理和文化现实中,发掘了湖南少历史负累而具独立根性的“士节”“民气”。20世纪初,杨度、杨毓麟等湖南留日学生,在此基础上完成了对晚清湖南形象的想象和重塑。
 
关键词: 潇湘;湖南形象;传教士;湘军;维新运动
 
 
The decaying of Xiaoxiang and transformation of the Hunan image in the late Qing Dynasty
 
ZHANG Chi
 
(School of Liberal Arts, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China)
 
Abstract: The image of Hunan in the late Qing Dynasty underwent a process from crisis to transformation in various historical and literary texts. The highly aesthetic Xiaoxiang image in the ancient times gradually decayed and mutated. Under the impact of foreign civilizations, Hunan became the most conservative Chinese region in the eyes of foreigners. In response, the founders of the Hunan Army, such as Guo Songtao and Zeng Guofan, began to walk out of Xiaoxiang scenery to seek a way out for both themselves and the country. Along with the local gentry, they presented a multi-dimensional image of Hunanese of being both conservative and aggressive. Although the Reform Movement in Hunan during the 1898 Movement finally failed, the scholars with Liang Qichao as the representative, unearthed the “Shijie” and “Minqi” of Hunan Province from the wild and remote Xiaoxiang geography as well as cultural reality, which shouldered less historical burdens but more independent roots. And on this basis, at the beginning of the twentieth century, Yang Du, Yang Yulin, and other Hunan students in Japan, completed the imagination and reconstruction of the Hunan image in the late Qing Dynasty.
 
Key words: Xiaoxiang; Hunan image; missionary; Hunan army; Reform Movement
 
 
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