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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2021年07月第27卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2021)04-0081-15
 
王夫之对儒家法理学的重整及当代价值
 
喻中
 
(中国政法大学法学院,北京,100088)
 
摘  要: 明末清初的王夫之在对儒家法理学的重整中,呈现出“破中有立”的特点。从“破”的方面来看,王夫之以“峻拒”老庄、“峻拒”申韩的立场,对道家与法家的法理学进行了个性化的批判。在王夫之看来,老庄及其法理学之弊,主要在于否弃礼乐刑政,其虚静之论将会导致“不治”,其阴柔之论将会消解仁德,“有所明而丧其诚”。法家及其法理学之弊,主要在于:以儒术作为装饰,见利忘义,将会导致君权轻而吏权重、君主安而天下困的消极后果。从“立”的方面来看,在批判老庄与申韩的基础上,王夫之基于儒者立场,“述而有作”,阐扬了孔子所代表的儒家法理学,认为:礼是国家治理所依据的基本规范,在礼与仁之间,具有互为体用的关系;文明秩序,应当通过“人禽之辨、夷夏之分、君子小人之别”三重关系来建构。王夫之对儒家法理学的重整,在文化格局、制度体系、技术路径等方面,都体现出重要的当代价值。
 
关键词: 王夫之;法理;道家;法家;儒家
 
 
Wang Fuzhi's reforming of Confucian jurisprudence and its contemporary value
 
YU Zhong
 
(School of Law, China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing 100088, China)
 
Abstract: Wang Fuzhi, at the late Ming and early Qing, reformed Confucian jurisprudence, which manifested the characteristic of "establishing in breaking." In terms of "breaking", Wang Fuzhi launched quite individualistic criticism at Taoist and legalist jurisprudence by taking a severe standpoint of rejecting the Taoist jurisprudence of Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi as well as legalist jurisprudence of Shen Buhai and Han Fei, two legalists at the Warring States Period. According to Wang Fuzhi, the major disadvantages of Taoist jurisprudence lie in that it discards cultivation through courtesy and music, that it rules through punishments so that its theory of silence will lead to "no rule", and that its theory of femininity will dissolve benevolence. The disadvantages of legalist jurisprudence mainly lie in the negative consequences of adopting Confucianism as decoration and ignoring righteousness upon benefits, which will lead to, on the one hand the emperor's light power but the officials' weighty rights, and on the other hand the emperor's ease but the officials' exhaustion. In the aspect of "establishing", Wang Fuzhi, based on his criticism at Lao-Zhuang and Shen-Han, stood at the position of Confucianism, restated the Confucian jurisprudence represented by Confucius, affirming that courtesy is the basic norm that the national governance should abide by, and there is bond of mutual trust between courtesy and benevolence, and that civilized order should be constructed on the triple relations between the humane and beastly, between the civilized and barbarious, and between the open-minded and narrow-minded. Wang Fuzhi's reforming of Confucian jurisprudence revealed its essential contemporary value in cultural aspiration, structural system, technical path and so on.
 
Key words: Wang Fuzhi; jurisprudence; Taoism; Legalism; Confucianism
 
 
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