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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2020年11月第26卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2020)06-0216-11
 
两汉宗藩入嗣与“为人后之谊”
 
丁佳伟
 
(江苏师范大学历史系,江苏徐州,221116)
 
摘  要: “为人后之谊”是两汉经学礼法对宗藩入嗣的重要礼制规范,涉及尊奉大宗和顾念私亲两方面。两汉在尊奉大宗方面的一致性与入嗣者的权力合法性建构密切相关。而在顾念私亲方面,西汉面临经典歧义、经学礼法与汉家旧制冲突、外戚权力裹挟等困境,表现为循环式冲突和动乱;东汉则通过构建尊号本亲之汉家故事等方式,对顾念私亲行为予以适度认可,准确把握了礼法的核心要义,在突破西汉礼法困境的同时,构筑起经学礼法与皇帝私情的合理分流机制。尊奉大宗的一致性与顾念私亲的差异性,展现了汉武帝独尊儒术以来经学礼法与汉家制度的激烈磨合,以及两汉以经治国策略的不断纯熟,折射出基于经典制度化之“儒教国家”形成的复杂过程。
 
关键词: 两汉;宗藩入嗣;经学礼法;大宗;私亲
 
 
Seigniors inheriting emperor's throne and “the duty as a heir” in the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties
 
DING Jiawei
 
(Department of History, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, China)
 
Abstract: “The duty as a heir” was one of important etiquette norms of Confucian classics for the seigniors to inherit the Emperor's throne in the Western and Eastern Han dynasties, involving both aspects of respecting the eldest branch and taking care of biological parents. There existed certain consistency in respecting the eldest branch and in the heir's power legitimacy in the Western and Eastern Han dynasties. In terms of looking after the biological parents, the Western Han Dynasty found itself facing dilemmas including disparity of classics, conflicts between the Confucian ethics and the old system of the Han family, the pressure of power struggle between maternal families. And the manifestation was the circular conflict and the continuous disturbance. By contrast, the Eastern Han Dynasty gave appropriate recognition to caring for the biological parents by constructing honorable titles, hence grasping accurately the core essence of etiquette and law. At the same time of breaking through the dilemma of etiquette and law in the Western Han Dynasty, a reasonable separation mechanism between the etiquette norms of Confucian classics and the emperor's personal feelings to biological parents was constructed. The consistency of respecting the eldest branch and the inconsistency of looking after the biological parents revealed the intense harmony between the etiquette norms of Confucian classics and the system of the Han family after Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty respected Confucianism alone, and the consistent maturity of statecraft in Han dynasty which relied on the Confucianism. It also reflects the complex process of the formation of "Confucian state" based on the institutionalization of classics.
 
Key words: the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties; seigniors inheriting the emperor's throne; the etiquette norms of Confucian classics; the eldest branch; the biological parents
 
 
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