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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2020年11月第26卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2020)06-0163-12
 
互联网社会科学实验:方法创新与价值评价
 
郝龙
 
(南京航空航天大学人文与社会科学学院,江苏南京,211100)
 
摘  要: 实验法是社会科学探索和检验因果关系的最重要手段。随着在线行为与在线现象重要性的不断提升,实验方法同互联网技术相结合逐渐成为研究方法创新的主要方向之一。互联网实验是一种在互联网空间中开展随机控制实验的研究方法。它遵循着实验方法的基本逻辑与研究流程,同时在研究设计、实验环境、实验操作和受试者获取与分组等方面表现出一定的方法创新性。同传统社会科学实验方法相比,互联网实验有着拓展研究对象、综合研究方式、扩大和丰富受试者的规模与类型、提升研究效率等优势,但也存在着较高的技术门槛和测量与计算上的部分困难等局限。在复杂性科学和计算社会科学的方法体系中,互联网实验还兼具实现“计算—模拟—实验”“微观—宏观”之间衔接与整合的重要方法价值。
 
关键词: 社会研究方法;实验法;互联网实验;复杂系统;计算社会科学
 
 
Online experiment for social sciences: Methodological innovation and evaluation
 
HAO Long
 
(School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211100, China)
 
Abstract: Experimental method is the most important approach for social sciences to explore and test causality. With the constantly increasing importance of online behaviors and virtual phenomena, the combination of experimental method and Internet technology has gradually become one of the main directions of research method innovation. Online experiment, a research method to carry out random-control experiments in the digital space, follows the basic logic and research procedure of experimental methods and has certain methodological innovations in research design, experimental environment, experimental operation, acquisition and grouping of subjects. Compared with traditional experimental methods of social sciences, online experiment boasts of such advantages as expanding research objects, integrating comprehensive research methods, enlarging and enriching the scales and types of subjects, and improving research efficiency. However, there are some methodological limitations, such as higher technical threshold and some difficulties in measurement and calculation. In the method system of complexity science and computational social sciences, online experiment is also of important methodological values in realizing the integration of both "computation-simulation-experiment" and "micro-macro".
 
Key words: social research methods; experimental method; online experiment; complex system; computational social science
 
 
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