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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2020年11月第26卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2020)06-0150-13
 
现代中国社会保障制度与慈善事业70年发展进程及其思考
 
周秋光
 
(湖南师范大学历史文化学院,湖南长沙,410081)
 
摘  要: 现代中国社会保障制度以政府为其主体和主导,民间社会团体与个人自发组织参与的慈善事业是其重要补充。在新中国成立的70年中,政府建构的社会保障制度经历了从计划经济时期过渡到市场经济阶段,从国家保障型模式变革到社会保险型模式,从以单位保障为主体转变为以社会保障为主体,从政府大包大揽转型为以政府牵头多种机制齐头并进的社会保障体系的发展历程。慈善事业在计划经济时期一度被否定,在市场经济条件下由政府主导恢复的慈善事业经历了缓慢复苏、全面兴起、蓬勃发展三个阶段。党的十九大以后,中国特色社会主义慈善事业进入新时代,面临着新的发展机遇。民办官助是政府在慈善公益领域的合理定位。政府主要是发挥政策引导、法律规范、舆论宣传、支持和监督等功能。要使作为社会保障制度补充的慈善事业持续健康发展,不仅要让慈善组织在法制的轨道中运营,而且要加强慈善文化建设,营造崇德向善的慈善文化氛围,更要加强慈善伦理建设,让慈善伦理与慈善法制相辅相成。政府需做大并分好社会保障的蛋糕,在发展的同时特别加大改善民生力度,让改革发展成果惠及广大人民。
 
关键词: 社会保障制度;慈善事业;70年发展进程
 
 
70 years’ development process of and its reflections on social security system and non-governmental charity in modern China
 
ZHOU Qiuguang
 
(School of History and Culture, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China)
 
Abstract: The modern Chinese social security system is dominated and led by the government, and charities participated in by civil society groups and individual voluntary organizations are its important supplements. In the 70 years after new China was founded, the social security system constructed by the government has undergone a transition from planned economy to market economy, from national security model to social insurance model, from entirety of working unit security to that of social security, and from the government as social security system to that headed by the government and joined in advancing by multi mechanisms. Philanthropy was once denied at the planned economy period, but in market economy, philanthropy has recovered under the domination by the government, having undergone three stages of slow recovery, full rise and vigorous development. After the 19th National Congress of CPC, the philanthropy with Chinese socialist characteristics has entered a new era, and is facing new development opportunities. To be executed by civilians yet aided by officials is the reasonable positioning from the government in the non-profitable field of philanthropy. The government plays its role mainly in policy guidance, legal norms, public opinion and publicity as well as support and supervision. To ensure that philanthropy industry, a supplement to social security system, is developing healthily, we must not only make philanthropic organizations run on the track of the legal system, but also strengthen the construction of charity culture, and create such an atmosphere of upholding the moral and the good. Most importantly, we need to enhance the construction of charity ethics so that charity ethics and charity legal system can complement each other. What the government needs to do is to develop and divide the pie shares of social security, and at the same time of development, to intensify its efforts in improving people's living standards so that reform fruits can benefit mass population.
 
Key words: social security system; philanthropy industry; 70 years' development process
 
 
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