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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2020年05月第26卷第3期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2020)03-0144-13
 
回溯与批判:个体化理论的逻辑考察
 
杨君
 
(华东理工大学社会学系,上海,200237)
 
摘  要: 不同学科关于个体化的讨论构成了理解个体化理论逻辑考察的主要脉络。个体化的核心是个体的个性形成、发展和不断彰显的过程,是个体对自身行为做出规划的能力体现。政治哲学从本体论和认识论论证了个体的存在基础与价值信念,通过大写的人为理性自觉和道德自觉的个体确立了合法的自主性;社会学通过对社会结构如何约束个体行为的阐释深化了社会与个人关系的讨论。在当代个体化与新自由主义的争论中,前者过于弱化个体的自主性,而后者夸大了个体的自主行动和决策能力。通过对个体化理论的回溯,基于中国的经验,发现无论是从国家、社会、市场等宏观结构层面阐释个体化现象,还是从微观的自我意识层面分析个体化现象,个体化在中国都呈现诸多面向。因此认为应该引入全球化视角,从社会与个人关系的互构入手,通过社会形塑个体,让个体在不断建构和创造主体间性的过程中完善自我。
 
关键词: 个体化;启蒙理性;社会结构;新自由主义;自反性;中国个体化
 
 
Retrospect and criticism: A logical study of individualization theory
 
YANG Jun
 
(Department of Sociology, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237)
 
Abstract: Discussion of individualization in different disciplines constitutes the main thread of understanding the logic investigation of individualization theory. The core of individuation is the process of forming, developing and manifesting individual's personality, and the embodiment of individual's ability to plan their own behavior. Political philosophy testifies the existence basis and value belief of the individual from ontology and epistemology, and establishes the legal autonomy for the individual with rational consciousness and moral consciousness through the capitalized Man. Sociological perspective deepens the discussion of the relationship between society and individual by explaining how social structure restricts individual behavior. In the contemporary debate between individualization and neo-liberalism, the former excessively weakens the individual's autonomy, while the latter exaggerates the individual's independent action and decision-making ability. Reviewing individualization theory, and based on China's experience, the research finds that, whether we interpret the phenomenon of individualization from the national, social, market and other macro structural levels or from the subjective level of self-consciousness, individualization in China always presents many dimensions. Therefore, this paper argues that we should introduce the perspective of globalization, starts with mutual construction of social and personal relations, and, by shaping the individual by the society, let the individuals perfect themselves in the process of continuous construction and creation of intersubjectivity.
 
Key words: individualization; enlightenment rationality; social structure; neo-liberalism; reflexivity; China's individualization
 
 
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