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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2020年05月第26卷第3期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2020)03-0065-07
 
航空产品适航审定的政府责任:美国经验与中国应对
 
于丹
 
(华东政法大学国际法学院,上海,200042)
 
摘  要: 以飞机为代表的航空产品需经过政府部门的适航审定,才可投入市场。在承认行政侵权赔偿的背景下,适航审定机构可能面临航空产品事故受害者的索赔。美国判例法将适航审定活动归入政府享有自由裁量事项范围,豁免了政府的侵权责任。中国当前法律仅原则性地规定了适航管理机构承担赔偿责任,但对求偿主体、赔偿事项范围等具体问题均未予明确,使政府赔偿责任的范围边界不尽清晰。随着国产飞机陆续投入市场,长期未付诸适用的法律规定有可能被援引为赔偿责任的依据。然而,由政府承担航空产品事故的损害赔偿责任欠缺理论与实践理性。我国法律应及时作出修改,以防范给适航审定机构带来不合理的责任风险。
 
关键词: 航空产品;适航审定;国家赔偿;行政侵权;产品责任
 
 
Government liability for the airworthiness certification: Experiences from the U.S. and countermeasures by China
 
YU Dan
 
(School of International Law, East China University of Political Science & Law, Shanghai 200042, China)
 
Abstract: Before being put into the market service of transportation, aviation products, with airplanes as the representative, shall be inspected and certificated by the pertinent authorities to prove its airworthiness. Under the regime of government liability on tort, government may be claimed for compensation for the reason of negligence or law-violation in airworthiness certification. In the U.S., FAA’s act of airworthiness certification, which is attributed to the discretionary function of government, enjoys immunity under FTCA. Whereas, in China, claims against the certification authorities may be supported due to the ambiguous stipulations of pertinent laws and regulations. To make government liable for damage arising in aircraft accident is lack of rationality on both perspectives of theory and practice. It is necessary to revise the current Chinese law to exclude the government from the risk of unreasonable liability in airworthiness certification.
 
Key words: aviation products; airworthiness certification; state compensation; administrative tort; product liability
 
 
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