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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2019年11月第25卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2019)06-0183-08
 
“最A不过”与“再A不过”结构的来源与演变
 
张金圈
 
(曲阜师范大学国际文化交流学院,山东曲阜,273165)
 
摘  要: 在现代汉语中,“最A不过”和“再A不过”两种结构的功能完全一致,形式也高度相似,因此研究者常常将其视为同一结构的自由变体,并想当然地以为它们也有着共同的来源。但全面深入的历时语料分析表明,“最A不过”和“再A不过”两种结构的来源并不相同。“最A不过”是在明清时期表示极性程度义的“A不过”结构基础上,为了凸显强调程度义而前加高程度义副词“最”产生的,而“再A不过”则是由“N1再A也A不过N2”这一表极性程度的无条件让步假设句经由移位、省略、话题化和主语化等句法语义操作演变而来。在现代汉语中,二者的句法语义功能逐渐合流,但在形式上仍有细微差异,“再A不过”在使用频率上更占优势。
 
关键词: 最A不过;再A不过;语法化
 
 
The origination and evolution of “Zuì(最)+adj.+ búguò(不过)”and “Zài(再)+adj.+ búguò(不过)”in Chinese
 
ZHANG Jinjuan
 
(School of International Cultural Exchange, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165, China)
 
Abstract: In modern Chinese, the two syntactic constructions “Zuì (最)+ adj.+ búguò (不过)” and “Zài(再) +adj.+ búguò(不过)” have the same functions and similar structures, causing some researchers to mistake them as two variants of one construction. But after a thorough and comprehensive analysis of their diachronic development, it is found that “Zuì (最)+adj.+ búguò(不过)”and “Zài(再)+adj.+ búguò(不过)” are different in origination and evolution. “Zuì(最)+adj.+ búguò(不过)” originated from the construction of “adj.+ búguò(不过)” which was used to express polarity degree in Ming and Qing dynasties,and later “Zuì(最),” meaning the highest degree, was added before “adj.+ búguò (不过)” for the purpose of laying stress on the polarity degree. “Zài(再)+adj.+ búguò(不过)”evolved from the construction of “Noun 1+ Zài(再)+ adj.+yě(也)+ adj.+ búguò(不过)+Noun 2” also indicating polarity degree but through a sequence of syntactic and semantic operations such as movement, ellipsis, topicalization and subjectivization.  In modern Chinese,the two constructions are gradually integrated in the syntactic and semantic functions yet with their subtle differences in forms and use frequency.
 
Key words: “Zuì(最)+adj.+ búguò(不过)”; “Zài(再)+adj.+ búguò(不过)”; grammaticalization
 
 
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