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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2019年11月第25卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2019)06-0049-09
 
论亚里士多德实践理智的实现及其根基
 
江威
 
(复旦大学哲学学院,上海,200433)
 
摘  要: 亚里士多德认为实践理智的德性是明智,它既依赖于努斯,又必须与伦理德性相结合。但是,伦理德性与明智只是不可分离又相互区别地结合着的。换言之,实践理智不是道德行为的绝对根据,而只是必要条件。因为对亚里士多德而言,实践理智的实现(εργον)或功能在于获得合乎正确的欲求(特指意愿)的真——这是考虑或选择的任务,但是作为选择的基础的意志本身是否正确是由伦理德性决定的,尽管严格意义上的伦理德性又依赖于决定选择的好与坏的明智(实践理智的德性)。因此,亚里士多德的意志/意愿概念正是他的实践理智的实现之根基,而这种意志的独特性最终决定了亚里士多德和康德对于实践理智或理性的理解的根本差异。
 
关键词: 实践理智;亚里士多德;实现;根基;意志
 
 
On Aristotle's actualization of practical intellect and its foundation
 
JIANG Wei
 
(School of Philosophy, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China)
 
Abstract: Aristotle thought that the virtue of practical intellect is practical wisdom (φρονησιs). It not only depends on Nous and but also must be combined with ethical virtues. However, ethical virtues and practical wisdom are just inseparably and distinctly combined. In other words, practical intellect is not the absolute basis of moral behavior, but only the necessary condition. For Aristotle, the actualization (εργον) or function of practical intellect is to obtain the truth in agreement with right desire (which specifically means the will) - this is the task of deliberation or choice, but whether or not the will itself as the basis of choice is correct is determined by ethical virtues, although the ethical virtues in the strict sense depend on the virtue of practical intellect (i.e., φρονησιs) which determines whether or not the choice is good. Therefore, Aristotle's concept of will/ willingness is the foundation or basis of his actualization of practical intellect, and its uniqueness ultimately leads to the fundamental difference between Aristotle's and Kant's understanding of practical intellect or reason.
 
Key words: practical intellect; Aristotle; actualization; foundation; will
 
 
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