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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2019年01月第25卷第1期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2019)01-0177-07
 
论舒斯特曼对梅洛-庞蒂身体现象学的批判
 
张晓东
 
(山东大学文艺美学中心,山东济南,250199)
 
摘  要: 舒斯特曼在《身体意识与身体美学》一书中对梅洛-庞蒂的身体现象学的批判存在曲解,主要表现在三个方面:一是曲解梅洛-庞蒂对哲学“跛行”的赞赏,把梅洛-庞蒂对时代政治的哲学反思曲解为梅洛-庞蒂主张哲学的不作为;二是认定梅洛-庞蒂在身体经验与身体反思之间制造二元对立,夸大梅洛-庞蒂对经验论身体观和唯理论身体观的批评;三是把梅洛-庞蒂对身体视角性的界定认作对身体局限性的辩护,把梅洛-庞蒂对身体图式的阐释理解为对反思性身体意识的排斥。经过舒斯特曼的“有罪推定”,梅洛-庞蒂被塑造成排斥实用主义身体美学方案、痴迷身体本质缺陷的守旧“圣徒”。批判性地反思舒斯特曼对梅洛-庞蒂身体现象学的曲解,对于理解实用主义与现象学的身体观的差异,促进身体美学兼收并蓄、长远发展具有重要的意义。
 
关键词: 身体美学;身体意识;沉默的我思;身体图式
 
 
On Shusterman’s criticism of Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology of body
 
ZHANG Xiaodong
 
(Research Center of Literary Theory and Aesthetics, Shandong University, Jinan 250199, China)
 
Abstract: There are obvious limitations in Shusterman’s criticism of Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology of the body. Firstly, Shusterman distorted Merleau-Ponty’s praise of limb of philosophy. The latter’s reflection of politics was mistaken for his advocate that philosophy could do nothing. Secondly, Shusterman believed that Merleau-Ponty created binary opposition between body experience and body reflection, and exaggerated Merleau-Ponty’s criticism at empirical aesthetics of the body and theoretic aesthetics of the body. Thirdly, Shusterman considered Merleau-Ponty’s definition of “the perspective of the body” as the defense for the limitation of the body, and Merleau-Ponty’s interpretation of body schema as rejection against the reflective awareness of the body. Through Shusterman’s "presumption of guilt", Merleau-Ponty has been characterized as an old-fashioned saint who excluded empirical somaesthetics and was infatuated with the essential deficiencies of the body. A critical reflection of Shusterman’s distortion of Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology of body is of important and far-reaching significance to understanding the differences between empiricism and phenomenology of the body as well as promoting incorporation of body aesthetics.
 
Key words: somaesthetics; body consciousness; tacit cogito; body schema
 
 
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