自然科学版 英文版
自然科学版 英文版
自然科学版 英文版
 

中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2019年01月第25卷第1期
   
本文已被:浏览889次    下载364次   在线阅读266
文章编号:1672-3104(2019)01-0139-08
 
化解自然自由与政治权威的冲突——为霍布斯式的假想同意理论辩护
 
王宇环
 
(中国海洋大学国际事务与公共管理学院,山东青岛,266100)
 
摘  要: 古典社会契约理论通过真实同意和假想同意两条路径来化解自然自由与政治权威的冲突,证成政治权威的正当性。以洛克为代表的真实同意路径强调主体的自愿性,却迁就于政治现实,面临表达难题。以霍布斯为代表的假想同意路径强调理想境况中理想主体的应然选择,却面临真实同意与假想同意之间的紧张关系、利维坦的不可欲性、假想同意可能只是一个空壳、假想同意无法证成政治义务等批评。然而,这些反对意见也都是可回应的:放弃以个人理性为核心的政治自愿主义同意路径、对主权者权威的范围和内容进行限定、将假想同意作为对政治权威或政治原则进行推证的恰当形式并通过对理性的诠释来实现自利的自然性与道德性的和解,确定假想同意的证成对象是政治正当性而非政治义务。基于此,霍布斯式的假想同意便可以更好地化解自然自由与政治权威的冲突,证成政治正当性。
 
关键词: 政治正当性;自然自由;政治权威;霍布斯;假想同意
 
 
Resolving the conflict between natural freedom and political authority: In defense of Hobbesian hypothetical consent theory
 
WANG Yuhuan
 
(School of International Affairs and Public Administration, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China)
 
Abstract: In the classical social contract theory, theorists resolve the conflict between natural freedom and political authority through two approaches of consent theory, namely, actual consent and hypothetical consent to justify legitimacy of political authority. Actual consent theory represented by John Locke emphasizes voluntariness of subjects' choice but yields to political reality and faces the criticism about how to express consent. Hypothetical consent theory represented by Thomas Hobbes emphasizes the ideal subjects' choice in the ideal situation, yet faces the tension between actual and hypothetical consent, the undesirability of Leviathan, hypothetical consent being an empty shell or being unable to justify political obligation. However, these criticism are responsive: giving up the political voluntarism consent approach which takes individual rationality as the core; limiting the range and content of the sovereign’s authority; taking hypothetical consent as an appropriate form and fair procedure for reasoning and reconciling nature and morality of self-interest by illustrating the meaning of reason; making sure what hypothetical consent justifies is political legitimacy rather than political obligation. Based on these, Hobbesian hypothetical consent theory can resolve the conflict between natural freedom and political authority and justify political legitimacy.
 
Key words: political legitimacy; natural freedom; political authority; Hobbes; hypothetical consent
 
 
版权所有:《中南大学学报(社会科学版)》编辑部 
地 址:湖南省长沙市岳麓区麓山南路932号     邮编: 410083
电 话: 0731-88830141
电子邮箱: znsk@csu.edu.cn 湘ICP备09001153号-4