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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2019年01月第25卷第1期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2019)01-0066-10
 
民法典婚姻家庭编一般规定章的定位、模式及其建构——基于大陆法系67项立法例的对比分析
 
刘征峰
 
(中南财经政法大学法学院,湖北武汉,430073)
 
摘  要: 婚姻家庭编是否设立一般规定章并没有学理上的必然性。一般规定章之设置应当首先考虑立法传统与实践需求。在设置一般规定章的立法例中,可以根据“是否存在基本原则”的标准将其划分为“社会主义-前社会主义”国家模式和“第二条道路”。考虑到婚姻家庭编一般规定章对民法总则的模仿,其是否需要同时处理客观法和主观权利两方面的问题应当首先参考民法总则的构造技术。但是,婚姻家庭编一般规定章的构造尤其需要考虑婚姻家庭编是基于生活事实的相似性进行聚合处理的这一特点。在主观权利部分,它不能仿照民法总则那样,以法律效果的相似性为基础进行提取公因式的操作。婚姻家庭编一般规定章中的某些基本原则同时扮演了客观法意义上的立法指导功能和主观权利意义上的权利限制功能。根据性质上的差异将这些原则分置于客观法和主观权利两部分并不具有实益。我国民法典婚姻家庭编的起草应当融通两种模式,在客观法部分增设法律适用规则,在主观权利部分增设权利主体规则(亲属的一般原理)和权利消灭规则(时效)。
 
关键词: 婚姻家庭编;民法典;主观权利;客观法;法律效果;生活事实
 
 
Roles, patterns and construction methods of general chapters in family law of civil code: A comparative study on sixty-seven jurisdictions
 
LIU Zhengfeng
 
(School of Law, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China)
 
Abstract: There is no theoretic necessity to set up a general chapter in family law. Lawmaking tradition and practical need are the two key factors to be considered in drafting the general chapter. Based on the criteria whether there are general principles or not, the surveyed laws in sixty-seven jurisdictions can be divided into two categories: the Socialism - Former Socialism Model and the Second Model. Considering the imitation of civil code by the general chapter in drafting family law, it should first refer to structural technique of civil general principles whether it should deal with objective law and subjective rights simultaneously. Nevertheless, the structure of general chapters in drafting family law especially needs to consider the characteristic that drafting family law is dealt with in combination based on the similarity to real life situations. In the part of subjective rights, it is unable to adopt an analogous method used in the general part of civil code to extract common factors in line with the similarity of legal effects. Some general principles in family law play a dual role of both its guiding function from the perspective of objective law and the limiting function from the perspective of subjective right. Then it is of little practical use to assign these principles in two parts according to the differences in nature. The drafting work of family law in Chinese civil code should integrate these two models—adding law application rule into the part of objective law while adding the rules that stipulate the subject of rights (general principles of .relatives), and the rights in the part of subjective rights (prescription).
 
Key words: family law; civil code; subjective rights; objective law; legal effect; living facts
 
 
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