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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2019年01月第25卷第1期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2019)01-0011-06
 
论沈从文的文学史定位
 
高旭东
 
(中国人民大学文学院,北京,100872)
 
摘  要: 从文学史的角度看,沈从文身上充满悖论。作为将门之后,他却不断强调自己是一个乡下人,而自身又属于自由绅士派的文化圈子。他是20世纪20年代中期罕见的赤贫无产者,却没有成为无产阶级作家,而且其文学主张还相当贵族化,即在文学独立的旗帜下反对文学的商业化及文学被政治派别侵蚀。从现代文学传统的角度看,沈从文的小说就是沿着鲁迅怀恋乡土的文学路线发展的,然而他过于推崇乡间的素朴美德与自然野性的生命力,又是对鲁迅凝视乡土愚昧、改造国民性文学路线的背离。当大多数中国作家以启蒙开路走向现代文明时,沈从文却以反文明的姿态力图复活原始的人性之美,给弱化的文明输入野性的力量。这就是沈从文的小说在中国社会真正进入现代后为什么更受欢迎的原因。沈从文那些描绘乡土人情与人世沧桑的作品确实魅力无穷,使得一些偏爱其明丽文字的批评家对他做出了过高的评价,应该超越从精致的供奉人性的小庙与明溪疏柳的角度,给沈从文以恰当的文学史定位。
 
关键词: 沈从文;悖论;传统;定位
 
 
Shen Congwen’s position in the history of literature
 
GAO Xudong
 
(School of Liberal Arts, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China)
 
Abstract: From the perspective of literature, Shen Congwen embodies paradoxes. A descendent of a general, yet he constantly stressed that he was a countryman, and he himself belonged to the literary circle of liberal gentlemen. A rarely-seen poor proletarian in the mid-1920s, yet he did not become a proletarian writer, and held a rather aristocratic point of view that literature should be independent and should be free from commercialization of literature or erosion by politics. Judging from traditional modern literature, Shen Congwen’s novels took the same development road of literature as Lu Xun looked at his native soil nostalgically. However, he praised too highly the simple virtue of his native land and vitality of the natural wild, and deviated from Lu Xun’s literary route of gazing at the local ignorance and reforming the national character. When the majority of Chinese writers stepped toward modern civilization, Shen Congwen attempted to revive the beauty of primitive humanity by being anti-civilization, putting the power of the wild into the weakened civilization. This is why Shen Congwen’s novels have been more popular since the society entered post-modern in China. Shen’s writings describing local sentiments and vicissitudes of the world are indeed so charming that those critics who prefer his bright words over-praised him. Therefore, we should transcend the delicate elite believing in humanity, and should position Shen Congwen properly in the history of literature.
 
Key words: Shen Congwen; paradoxes; the tradition; position
 
 
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