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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2018年07月第24卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2018)04-0025-07
 
费西金对机会“平等化”的批判及其机会多元主义
 
张虎
 
(山东社会科学院哲学研究所,山东济南,250002)
 
摘  要: 费西金认为通常意义上的机会平等把“平等化”作为思考机会分配和建构的最佳范式,但是机会平等化面临四个问题——家庭问题、功绩问题、起跑门问题和个性问题,因此只能是一个无法实现的理想。他提出了重建机会平等工程的方案——机会多元主义,强调构建多元的机会结构,打开创造和获取机会的“瓶颈”,以使人们有更多“追求人的兴盛”的路径。费西金指出了平等主义正义理论通常忽视的问题——机会平等的理想应该为所有人提供什么样的机会和机会的组合,但这并不意味着能够超越分配正义来理解该理想。
 
关键词: 机会平等;费西金;机会多元主义;反瓶颈原则;运气平等主义
 
 
Fishkin’s critique at opportunity “equalization” and his opportunity pluralism
 
ZHANG Hu
 
(Institute of Philosophy, Shandong Academy of Social Science, Ji’nan 250002, China)
 
Abstract: Fishkin thinks many theories of equality of opportunity usually treat “equalization” as the best paradigm when thinking about distribution and construction of opportunities. But opportunity equalization is faced with four problems-the problem of family, the problem of merit, the problem of starting-gate, and the problem of individuality, so it is an unattainable ideal. He proposes a plan of reconstructing the project of equal opportunities- Opportunity Pluralism, which emphasizes establishing diverse opportunity frameworks, broadens the “bottlenecks” of creating and acquiring opportunities in order to make people have more ways of “pursuing human flourishing”. Fishkin points to the problem often neglected by the theories of egalitarianism justice, that is, what kind of opportunities, and in what combination, should be made available to people. But it does not mean that we can interpret it beyond distributive justice.
 
Key words: equality of opportunity; Fishkin; Opportunity Pluralism; anti-bottleneck principle; luck egalitarianism
 
 
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