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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2017年01月第23卷第1期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2017)01-0175-07
 
明代岁考制度及其社会流动功能
 
郭文安
 
(南京大学历史学院,江苏南京,210023)
 
摘  要: 作为生员考核的新形式,明代天顺年间确立的岁考制度,依托完善的运行机制,对生员群体的社会流动产生了重要影响。与科举考试一样,岁考亦成为了明代社会流动机制的重要组成部分。岁考影响生员社会流动的广度在某种意义上甚至超过了科举,具有相当的普遍性。同时,岁考还作为科举的补充,部分消解了由科举极低的录取率所带来的社会负面心态,在彼时相对固化的社会阶层结构中,为生员阶层注入了些许活力。
 
关键词: 岁考;生员;社会流动;岁贡;科举;明代
 
 
Annual test system in Ming Dynasty and its social mobility function
 
GUO Wenan
 
(School of History, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China)
 
Abstract: As a new form of official student assessment, the annual test system in Ming Dynasty which was established in Tianshun ages and relied on the perfect operation mechanism, exerted important influence on the official student groups and their social mobility. Like the imperial examinations, the annual also became an important part of the social mobility mechanism in Ming Dynasty. Moreover, the breadth of official students’ social mobility influenced by annual test was in a sense even greater than the imperial examination and became considerably universal. Meanwhile, annual test could also function as a complement to the imperial examination, partially digesting the negative mentality of the society brought by the extremely low acceptance rate of the imperial examinations, and adding some vitality to official student class in the relatively consolidated social class structure.
 
Key words: annual test; official students; social mobility; annual tribute; imperial examination; Ming Dynasty
 
 
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