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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2017年01月第23卷第1期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2017)01-0168-07
 
第一次世界大战新旧国会“对德宣战案”始末
 
兰池
 
(北京大学马克思主义学院,北京,100871)
 
摘  要: 第一次世界大战爆发之初,北京政府宣布中国持中立态度。此后,国内外形势渐渐生变,特别是美国公开对德宣战之后,朝野上下参战之意不绝如缕。1917年8月,段祺瑞政府发布公告,对德奥宣战。但是,从法理上来讲,“对德宣战案”因各方势力掣肘并未经旧国会审议通过。一直到1918年底,对德宣战已一年有余,才由新国会追认通过了参战案。通过梳理“对德宣战案”提案前的历史背景,此议案背后盘桓交错的历史细节,新、旧两个国会各自对参战案的态度及议决结果等问题,进而探讨参战派与反参战派之间的意气之争、利益之争,以求教于史学界同仁。
 
关键词: 第一次世界大战;对德宣战案;旧国会;新国会;北京政府
 
 
“Declaration of War against Germany” of old and new Congress in the First World War
 
LAN Chi
 
(School of Marxism, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China)
 
Abstract: In the early First World War, Beijing government announced that China would maintain a neutral attitude. Since then, the domestic and international situations started to change, and especially after America declared war against Germany, the whole society in China began to discuss if China would take part in the war. In August 1917, Duan Qirui announced that China would be in the war against Germany. However, in the term of legal principle, “Declaration of War against Germany” was not approved by the old Congress. It was not until the end of 1918 that the declaration was approved by the new Congress. The present essay aims to tease out the background of “Declaration of War against Germany,” the complicated historical details behind it, and the attitude and procedure result of old and new Congress. And further exploration is also taken to help understand the contention of interests and personal feelings between the two Congresses.
 
Key words: the First World War; “Declaration of War against Germany”; old Congress; new Congress; Beijing government
 
 
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