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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2014年04月第20卷第2期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2014)02-0261-06
 
现代汉语介词“论”的形成历史及其语法分析
 
石微,王浩垒
 
(北华大学文学院,吉林省吉林市,132013;贵州师范大学文学院,贵州贵阳,550001)
 
摘  要: 现代汉语介词“论”来源于先秦动词“论”。动词“论”在先秦时期用在连动结构中,两汉时期“论”所在的连动结构主次动词分化明显,唐代“论”由动词引申出介词用法,宋代以后“论”的介词用法进一步扩展。连动结构是引发动词“论”语法化的句法环境,连动结构的句法环境加之连动结构中连词使用频率的递减趋势为动词“论”的语法化提供了条件。“论”由表示“议论、评论”的实词义到表示“以某种单位为准”的语法义的语法化过程中间经历了“衡量、评定”义的语义演变阶段。频率中“临界频率”的增加也是推动“论”语法化的一个重要因素。“论”的句法功能变化的机制是重新分析,而“论”发生语义演变致使语法意义产生的机制是语用推理。
 
关键词: “论”;语法化;句法环境;语义演变;临界频率
 
 
An analysis of history and grammaticalization of preposition Lun(论) in modern Chinese
 
SHI Wei, WANG Haolei
 
(College of Liberal Arts, Beihua University, Jilin132013, China;
College of Liberal Arts, Guizhou Normal University)
 
Abstract: The verb Lun (论) was used in serial verb construction in Pre-Qin Period; and the serial verb construction containing Lun (论) underwent the differentiation of the major and minor verbs in Han Dynasty. Then, the verb Lun (论) developed the prepositional function in Tang Dynasty; after the Song Dynasty the prepositional function of Lun (论)enlarged. Serial verb construction served as the syntactic conditions and, together with the reduction of conjunction usage, it contributed to the grammaticalization of Lun (论). Originally as a notional word with the meaning “discuss” or “comment”, Lun (论) became the functional word which means “following some standards”, through a mediating semantic stage meaning “measure” or “evaluate”. The increase of critical frequency was also a major cause for its grammaticalization. The mechanism of changing its syntactic function was to make a reanalysis, and the mechanism of semantic evolution was pragmatic inference.
 
Key words: Lun(论); grammaticalization; syntactic conditions; semantic evolution; critical frequency
 
 
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