自然科学版 英文版
自然科学版 英文版
自然科学版 英文版
 

中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2014年04月第20卷第2期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2014)02-0044-07
 
图式特质论
——基于康德、皮亚杰图式学说的历史考察
 
蒋开天
 
(上海师范大学哲学与跨文化研究所,上海,200234)
 
摘  要: 康德、皮亚杰在图式学说方面具有某种内在的、必然的历史承继性。二人图式学说的特质有四:结构性、动态性、主体性、中介性。结构性、动态性、主体性为图式的基本特质,中介性为图式的本质特质。图式的结构性与动态性让我们明晰了认识的基本架构与内在机制;主体性为主客体统一的进程扫除了障碍;中介性是批判与完善传统的直观的镜式认识论的内在要求与必然结果。康德对于图式的基本特质的探讨,是认识论史上第一次通过假设图式存在的方法,基于先验哲学体系的需要,试图具体解决感性到知性的过渡问题。而皮亚杰则以实证科学为基础,澄清了认识的发生、发展的实际进程与机制,为康德的图式理论在发生学与心理学上找到依据,证实了图式的客观存在性,使认识结构问题成为认识论研究中的必要内容,可以说,皮亚杰的图式学说是康德图式学说的发生学,是对康德图式学说的进展与提高。
 
关键词: 康德;皮亚杰;图式;结构性;动态性;主体性;中介性
 
 
The peculiarity of schema—Based on the historical investigation of Kant and Piaget’s schema theories
 
JIANG Kaitian
 
(Institute of Philosophy and Cross-culture, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China)
 
Abstract: Kant and Piaget’s schema theories have some historical inheritance. Through the investigation on the schema theories, the author finds that the schema has four peculiarities: the structural nature, the dynamic feature, the subjectivity and the intermediary role. The structural nature, the dynamic feature and the subjectivity are the basic peculiarities of schema. The intermediary role is the essential peculiarity of schema. From the structural nature and the dynamic feature, we can understand the basic structure and mechanism of cognition. The subjectivity can remove the obstacles for the unity of subject and object, and the subjectivity and the intermediary role can criticize and improve the traditional epistemology. The discussion on basic characteristics of schema of Kant is the first time in the history of epistemology by assuming the existence of schema, based on the requirement of kant’s priori philosophy, trying to solve specific perceptual to transition problem of intellectual. However, Piaget uses empirical science as the basis to clarify the actual process and mechanism of the occurrence and development of cognition and to find evidence for Kant’s schema theory in ontogeny and psychology. He not only confirmed the objective existence of schema, but also made the cognition structure theory a necessary content in the field of epistemologycan. In other words, Piaget’s schema theory is the progress and improvement of Kant’s schema theory.
 
Key words: Kant; Piaget; schema; the structural nature; the dynamic feature; the subjectivity; the intermediary role
 
 
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