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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2013年06月第19卷第3期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2013)03-0076-05
 
制衡分权理论在美国宪政中的演变
 
雷安军
 
(宜宾学院法学院,四川宜宾,644000)
 
摘  要: 在殖民地时代,北美一度盛行混合政体理论,各殖民地宪法模仿英国宪法制度。美国独立前后,各州抛弃了英国的混合政体理论,根据纯粹分权理论来制定州宪法。建立在纯粹分权理论上的宪法制度在运行中出现问题,于是,各州又回到混合政体理论,并从中发现了可以借鉴的制衡因素。在吸收了混合政体理论的制衡因素和纯粹分权理论的分权因素后,美国形成了制衡分权理论,并使之成为美国宪法的基础理论。制衡分权是美国宪法的基本原则之一,也是美国司法审查制度有效运行所依赖的基础。
 
关键词: 美国宪政;混合政体;纯粹分权;制衡分权;司法审查
 
 
Checks and Balance and Separation of Powers Doctrine

in constitutional system of USA

 
LEI Anjun
 
(School of Law, Yibin University, Yibin 644000, China)
 
Abstract: In colony period’s American, mixed government was popular and colonies established constitutional systems like that of England. In the beginning of the establishment of the U.S.A., colonies turned to absolute separation of powers and amended their constitutions. But these new constitutions faced new problems in practice. So colonies came back to mixed government theory and found obtacles and balance in it. After combining checks and balance with separation of powers, USA formed checks and balance and separation of powers. This new theory becomes the fundamental base of the Constitution and it is the condition that the system of judicial review depends on.
 
Key words: American constitutional system; mixed government; absolute separation of powers; Checks and Balance and Separation of Powers; judicial review
 
 
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