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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2011年04月第17卷第2期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2011)02-0180-05
 
“X什么X”的结构性质新探
 
吴丹华
 
(广西大学文学院, 广西南宁, 530004)
 
摘  要: 口语中的“X什么X”,是一种特殊的否定结构,X几乎可以由各种语言形式充当。学术界一直对其结构性质有争议,现有的句法理论也很难为其结构定性,而结合语言和思维的关系,从逻辑角度,提出“索引-否定”理论可以解决这一问题。据研究,人们在使用“X什么X”时,必先“索引”否定对象,后将其置于该结构中表达否定意图,“X什么X”是“索引-否定”结构,其下有三个小类:“X1什么X1”“什么X2”和“X3什么X4(X3X4)”,它们在使用范围上互补。“索引”有指向否定对象的作用,根据“索引”位置的不同,该结构表层有两种形式:1. “X+什么X”,即“索引+否定”;2. “X什么+X”,即“否定+索引”,三个小类分别与这两种形式对应。
 
关键词: 汉语结构;“X什么X”;结构性质;“索引-否定”
 
 
A New Exploration of the Structure “X Shen me(什么) X”
 
WU Danhua
 
(College of Chinese Language and Literature, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China)
 
Abstract: “X Shen me(什么)X” is a unique negative structure in modern oral Chinese, in which X can almost be replaced by several elements of language. There are always disputes on its structure in academic field, and it is also hard to characterize the structure of “X Shen me(什么)X”  with current syntactic theory. The problem, however, can be solved by advancing the theory of “index –negation” from the relationship between language and thinking and from the perspective of logic. According to our research, people will index the object of negation firstly, and then put it into the structure of “X Shen me(什么)X” to negate something when they use the structure. Thus, “X Shen me(什么)X” is a structure of  “index –negation”,  which can be divided into three subclasses:  “X1 Shen me (什么)X1”,“ Shen me (什么)X3”and “X1Shen me(什么)X2(X1X2)”. The scope of their use can be complementary . “Index” can be used as pointing the object of negation, and according to the location of the “index”, there are two forms on the surface :  1. “X+ Shen me (什么)X”, which is “index +negation ”;2. “X Shen me(什么) +X ”, which is “negation + index”, the three subclasses correspond to the forms.
 
Key words: syntactic structure of Chinese; X Shen me(什么)X; characteristic of the structure; index-negation
 
 
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